Geography, a relief, a climate and tourism seasons. Features of weather in mountains
The Crimean peninsula finishes a southern frame of Europe along with Pirenejsky, Appeninsky and Balkan peninsulas, but it is much less and to the north of them. Black and Azov exhausting, washing it, the basic lines and the nature differ from Mediterranean, but nevertheless, and stories of our corner of the world are defined by affinity to the Mediterranean region.
Travelling on South careful highway between Sevastopol, Yalta and Alushtoj it is possible to see landscapes, characteristic for Spain, France, Italy, Capri, Greece, Cyprus. Having risen in mountains, for example, in the Bajdarsky valley, it appear among cool and quiet beauty of Switzerland. The tradition of Russian aristocracy suits in such places specific platforms with arbours and rotundas perfectly supplement fountains hanskogo time and modern small restaurants. It as well as possible arranges both professional film crews, and hazardous owners of the soap trays stringing a landscape behind a landscape to ask then friends: "Guess, where it?". By the way, I advise necessarily to write down this most "where", together with time, after all sun position changes colour and outlines of mountains inexplicably.
At the same time northern flat part of peninsula is continuation of East European plain, but is much warmer and more chilly. There are even present semi-deserts and saline soils which, nevertheless, become covered in the spring by a violent bright carpet of unusual colours.
To understand all this kaleidoscope, we will remind our readers something from school knowledge.
The Autonomous republic Crimea (since 1954 on 1991 the Crimean area) is a part of Ukraine. Administrative borders in the north pass on the Rekopsky shaft and Sivash - to a shallow gulf of sea of Azov. In the peninsula northeast there is a long tongue of sand - the Arabatsky arrow, its northern, wider half concerns the Kherson area of Ukraine. From coast of Kerch strait already Asian coast – Krasnodar territory is visible to Russia. Opposite "corner" of Crimea occupies a hero town Sevastopol having, along with Kiev, independent management and direct submission to the Government of Ukraine.
the Area Crimea - 27 thousand square kilometres - hardly is less than Belgium, Albania or Haiti, but more than Israel, Cyprus, Lebanon, Jamaica. The maximum extent of territory from the north on the south about 200 km, from the east on the West - 330 km. Extent of a coastal line along the Black and Azov seas - 1115 km, on a share of beaches is necessary about 517 km, and their variety is very great. Actually mountain and foothill part of Crimea attractive to campaigns and active tourism makes stretched in shirotnom a direction a rhombus approximately in 160-170 km from the West (from Sevastopol and Sandy) on the east (to Old Crimea, Koktebel and Feodosiya) and on 40-50 km from the south (from Southern coast) on the north (to Simferopol). Mountains are adjoined very successfully by a good few of the Crimean coast – west cost with its sandy beaches, phantasmagoric Sevastopol coast with unapproachable capes and magic bays, Southern coast with alternation of rocky capes and gravijno-galechnyh beaches, Southeast coast with spacious valleys and beaches from the slate sand decorated with a jasper and cornelians of Karadaga. Mountains and the sea, an extreme and luxury – an infrequent combination among world resorts! And the small area of Mountain Crimea, let and the deprived pathos and grandness, only in plus.
the Relief and a coastal line. Flat Crimea differs from steppes of the next areas of Ukraine a little, but in the west the plain passes in the calcareous ledges of Tarhankuta abruptly breaking to the sea, and in the east - in hilly ridges of Kerch peninsula. The coastal line everywhere is very difficult: picturesque breakages and rocky haosy alternate with spacious beaches in the protected bays.
Crimean mountains in the south were stretched by three parallel ridges from Sevastopol to Feodosiya on 150 kilometres. Their southern slopes almost otvesny, and northern the hollow pass in mezhgrjadovye falls or plains.
Two low ridges (External and Internal) in the north make the Crimean foothills , cut on separate files picturesque river valleys. In the western part one and a half ten well-known cave cities and monasteries settle down, many of which are embodied in fairy tales and insurgents, and in the east – the file Ak (the White rock) with typical cretaceous prairie became simply classics of the Soviet westerns.
The Abundance of grottoes and rocky canopies in calcareous breakages of Foothills, and also a favorable microclimate have defined their main role in culture of the ancient Stone Age.
During the most severe climatic epoch when almost all Europe has been covered glacial pantsyrem, Foothills valleys became a refuge for animal all climatic zones of Europe from tundra to tropics. In process of glacier thawing, the tribes of the ancient people which have survived in Crimea (as well as in Northern Adriatic Sea and on Azure coast) have occupied in due course Europe anew. It is probable, for this reason for the majority of Europeans landscapes of foothill Crimea are perceived as comfortable, pleasant, native at genetic level.
At the time of the early Iron Age of a cave of Foothills (for example, the Snake grotto jugo-to the west Simferopol) became patrimonial sanctuaries of Tauris where they sacrificed to the goddess to the Maiden grasped ellinov. With Christianity acceptance, and then both Moslems grottoes and caves became sacred places of these religions, and the same places had only small divergences in legends.
Heights the Internal ridge in the west reach 583 m above sea level – a file of Mangup, and in the east Ak has a mark only 343 m, but its vertical breakage makes grandiose impression. In vicinities of Bakhchisarai the Internal ridge consists of two steps kuest among which rise also separate files like Mangupa or Tepe-kermen. It is possible to tell, what exactly local landscapes and especially cave cities have created a special remembered image of mountain Crimea.
In the east, around small town Old Crimea the Internal ridge loses character kuest and consists of several cone-shaped files of impressive height. They are made any more by limestones. The mountain Kubalach between Bogatovkoj and Old Crimea is a champion of the Internal ridge with a mark of 766 m, and the champion also on unpopularity among tourists. Officially it is botanical zakaznik, the big height and change of several vegetative belts define riches of vegetative kinds and belts on mountain slopes. Except this Kubalach it is interesting still by the most ancient (if to start with uniformistskoj the theory) geological breeds. More close to Old Crimea there is a powerful end of the Internal ridge – files the Small and Big Agarmysh also exceeding 700 metres, however Big Agarmysh is almost destroyed by stone extraction.
the External ridge only recovers a relief from the north from a line Sevastopol – Simferopol (and hardly further on the east) separate files in height from 140 to 362 metres with dark green stains of pine forests, basically artificial. It is interesting only to those who has a rest at the Western coast (Uchkuevki, Sandy, to Nikolaevka) to sweep on a horse or a mountain bicycle or to do some flying on a paraplane and to taste other "raised" delights. Perhaps, Only crying rock and adjoining it Pozharsky zakaznik medicinal grasses, and also deltadrom and a hippodrome at Kolchugino can be considered as advantages of the External ridge.
In general the best part for tourism are valleys and files between the Internal ridge of Foothills and the Main ridge. In the ancient time because of private attacks of steppe nomads the transport message between settlements was carried out in this strip, now by almost deserted, not mentioned asphalt civilisation.
The Main ridge, or Jajla (on krymsko-tatarski - summer pastures) rises almost continuous barrier which height directly at coast in the western part (at cape Ajja or at Bear-mountain) makes more than 500 metres, and in the central part already removed from coast t of coast ' fcко of kilometres exceeds one thousand metres. The ridge hides from cold winds at the southern abrupt breakage a narrow strip of a land - the well-known Southern coast of Crimea ( JUBK ). Over Jajloj, a hilly plateau, separate hills and peaks tower. Six of them exceed 1500 metres, the most part is on a plateau of Babugan-jajla, including the Novel-kosh, the highest point of Crimea – 1545 m, and also the most effective top, with the richest review – the Eklizi-breaker (Church cape) on Chatyr-dage, with a mark of 1527 m. For all these tops the best starting point - Alushta.
On the Main ridge drops out much more deposits so magnificent greens of the Alpine meadows and soft lines of hills transfer us to the centre of Europe, and romantic, medieval. Absence of asphalt and electric mains allows cinematographers of many countries to shoot here adventure films.
Some the birch bosks which have remained still from the Glacial age, will remind of Russia. Most well-known of them is near to a meteorological station on Ah-petri, it both the most popular among tourists and the most accessible (on a minibus from the Yalta road service station).
At southern bottom of the Main ridge beaches are good not only transparent water, but also possibility to be engaged (or to admire) in rock-climbing on vertical or even negative rocky walls in height in hundreds metres. And obrashchennost beaches to the sun almost everywhere on the south. The solar beams reflected from the sea are focused by rocks which besides protect bays from a wind. Always it is possible to find "skovorodochki" for sunburn in "February windows" - characteristic for Crimea the warming periods, or to prolong "the velvet season" till the end of November.
The delights are and in game in change of a high-rise belt. After snow open spaces Ah-petri you in any 15 minutes appear in tender Mishore. You lap in open pool with the warmed-up sea water, admiring magnificent colours and winter (such in Crimea much!) butterflies.
Jajla shares the Alushtinsky valley on the western and east files. Western jajly – Bajdarsky, Ah-Petrinsky, Yalta, Nikitsky, the Gurzufsky Saddle and Babugan are separated from each other by small falls, and their top parts have small disorder on heights.
Jajly to the east of Alushty are divided by extensive valleys and has "a two-storeyed" structure. The bottom plateau of Chatyr-daga has marks about 1000-1100 metres, and Top – 1400-1500 m. To jajlam Southern (1249 and Northern Demerdzhi (1359) from the north adjoin jajla Tyrke (1283) and extensive Dolgorukovsky jajla with marks about 1000 m. To jajle Karabi (the highest point the Penalty-tau 1209м) adjoins from the northwest Orta-syrt with heights about 900 metres.
From Alushty to Sudaka Jajla it is cut by the spacious valleys which have been not so protected from a winter icy cold, but with huge pleasant beaches is a Southeast coast of Crimea ( JUVBK ). Freakish rocky capes and small islets before them serve as remarkable scenery to films about sea adventures, pirates and treasures. By the way, divers lift real treasures from a bottom regularly.
Around the Pike perch of top of mountains already cone-shaped, plateaus are replaced by the mountain ridges, most interesting of which Echki-dag with remarkable woods, springs, lakes and is bright-red slopes of the Fox bay at the sea, and also an ancient volcanic file the Penalty-dag.
Jajly basically consist of limestones and are penetrated by thousand large karstic cavities. These are many-tier (to 6 floors) caves, vertical wells and the mines frightening failures with crystal-clear lakes, never thawing snezhnikami and glaciers, wonderful ornaments from crystals and kaltsitovyh natekov and improbably majestic arches in tens metres in height. From them, as a matter of fact, also there was an European representation about sanctity and the temple architecture has developed.
Even in mountains the nature of Crimea remains friendly to the person, leaving among hundreds the dangerous tests accessible only to desperate and skilled adventurers, some, as if specially thought up convenient and pleasant places in which invalids or older persons can take pleasure even. And, of course, Mountain Crimea is especially good for children with whom he simply plays, giving training through adventures. The geology, botany, zoology, geography, history can be learnt easily, fascinatingly and visually, simply continually.
However, the most important is the good mountain conductor. Any book will not replace to you dialogue with the expert. During pre-revolutionary times of a figure of conductors were on the present cult, for example, in Bakhchisarai Tatar Mesaut was so well-known, what even picture postcards on its tomb at bottom of rocks Suvlu became a popular souvenir.
Really, each of tourist clubs concentrates in itself knowledge on tens volumes, and travel with a good conductor is a unique adventure, exclusive cinema in one copy!
All three ridges of Crimean mountains converge at the edges in very original "knots". In the west it is Balaklava and cape Feolent, in the east – Koktebel and cape Kiik-Atlama. If to show 3 photos to the skilled tourist (but unfamiliar with Crimea) typical trehgrjadovoj pictures somewhere at Bakhchisarai, western "steepness" and east sensual rotundity – nobody will tell that it is one country. Contrast amazing, but I do not advise to slip all Crimean mountains for one route. Will understand nothing, and the pleasure will be superficial. I at all would not advise to put before myself a problem "to understand all". As far as I know, skilled tourists in Crimea love, know and appreciate everyone the. Basically and this book cannot give at all exhaustive knowledge of all areas of Mountain Crimea. She simply will help to choose that you can grow fond and what will understand in due course much better, than I, and all other authors of books. Crimea, is really divided into small corners, each of which – "transcendental object" dialogue with which can devote all life.
the Climate Crimea as a whole has lines of a moderate belt. But Southern coast of Crimea name subsredizemnomorem - the basic lines of its climate are close to areas of Mediterranean sea, and a plant and animal life - to subtropics. Average temperature of January of +4 degrees With. In foothills it hardly is more than 0 degrees, and on Jajle winter serious and even dangerous, with severe through penetrating winds. It is is already moderate-cold and damp mountain climate with high-rise pojasnostju. On one thousand metres temperature fall is on the average estimated in 6 degrees, however obrashchennost a slope to the north, the shade and northern or especially dangerous northeast wind can reduce temperature simply behind a rocky crest on 10-15 degrees. Rains and especially snow go not simply more often, than below, and level of deposits above in 4-6 times in the winter. Snow accumulation in rocky cracks can reach 6 metres in the winter! But we will not intimidate too tourists. Great bulk of deposits, as well as it is necessary in the classical Mediterranean countries, it is necessary for the winter.
the Climate in mountains has the features literally on each hills. Also it is very important also a slope exposition, especially in the winter: if on northern kuluare mountains Chatyr-dag the present snowstorm with a penetrating frosty wind on a plateau can be solnechno and almost bezvetrenno so it is possible to sunbathe, for example, storms, and on southern porosshem wood a slope already all thaws. As a whole mountains differ at all times year at colder nights, than valleys, the considerable quantity of fogs and deposits - forms a steady snow cover which can keep to the middle of April in the winter. On flat surfaces of the Main ridge of Crimean mountains - jajlah the wind almost always blows. At the same time there is a set of cosy mountain valleys and gorges, for example, the natural boundary Red caves where it is always silent and is much warmer, than in district.
On slopes jajl Ah-petri, Babugan, Chatyr-dag and Demerdzhi and can in the winter descends avalanches in the spring. Avalanching ways same also are well visible from year to year from afar bezlesnymi strips. Be in earnest about preventions of weather services of danger of an avalanching, and in general consider that winter campaigns on jajlam are very dangerous and demand serious preparation. However, before all mountain campaigns it is necessary to be registered in to a kontrolno-life-saving service of Crimea , and there you already receive also the detailed information both about local and about seasonal complexities, dangers, together with about the most pleasant and interesting advantages of a route.
Separate danger of the Crimean travel – DO NOT TRUST CARDS! The greatest nonsense in planning of the Crimean routes – to think up their houses simply on the basis of several tourist cards. The first – all Soviet (and post-Soviet) cards are published with intended distortions. The second – topographical shooting – very expensive action also is spent seldom – time in 20-30 years. Dirt roads in Crimea vary annually, gardens raskorchevyvajutsja, and artificial landings of woods extend.
The Third – the distance on cards is shown as a projection to planes. That is the ten metres on a card can represent steep breakage in one thousand metres of height, absolutely unapproachable. One more danger – JULLJUZIJA VSESILNOSTI of MODERN TECHNOLOGIES. Devices of satellite navigation in Crimea are absolutely useless.
on mountain routes it is necessary to use Cards. About features of it separate article "Cartographical maintenance of mountaineering".
Distances in mountains are perceived also not habitually. Because of a high transparency of air the next tops can look relatives, but ravines and precipices will force you to walk on tens kilometres. At the same time the fog and shreds of clouds will present to you unreal pleasure to plunge into atmosphere of any Solaris and to forget in general about existence of a civilisation and any else humanoids, outside of your company! ANY DRUGS And ANY ALCOHOL on a route! I assure you, no fly agarics will replace to you real glitches, mirages and ghosts which wait, will not wait you in Crimean mountains. Be not surprised also to that in photos or a video shooting, made in mountains, caves, at springs will be certain "essence" with unearthly structure of a body, light, fiery columns and other displays of thin power bodies. Concern it pragmatically, but with a due share of respect. Enjoy mountain air, bathing in falls, tea from mountain grasses and light of stars, but do not try shamanit and to subdue these forces.
One of the reasons on which people of white race feel in Crimea remarkably - relative humidity air. It in Crimea almost always and everywhere is insignificant - within 65 - 80% and is optimum for Europeans.
the Summer in Crimea everywhere hot and solar (the average temperature of July of +24 degrees C, in August of heat can exceed 40 degrees, but it is transferred easily thanks to dryness of air), a fair weather pleasantly is freshened by short downpours, more often at midday. The people badly transferring to heat (especially rich and clever) now for summer holiday remove, build or buy houses and country houses in mountain valleys. There summer nights cool and fresh. The Bajdarsky valley (the earth of Sevastopol) and village Zelenogore (Belogorsky area) is especially popular. But mountain villages of the Alushtinsky and Salgirsky valley, here, by the way, are not less good much more cheaply.
It is possible to consider as swimming season Borders the middle of May (but it is traditionally populous for holidays in the first decade of May) and the end of September. The tourist season in Crimea all-the-year-round, but exists splashes in the prices for May holidays and New year. All decent health resorts have now pools with the warmed-up sea water so with bathing of special problems is not present. A problem only that in July-August at coast is too populous and it is noisy. Though in mountains pleasantly enough, but points of routes it is necessary to plan for coast more carefully, trying to discover not especially overloaded resorts.
Now the short review of features of an annual cycle of the Crimean tourism.
New year many meet in mountains – on summer residences, tourist and hunting bases, in shelters and even in tents . and see off in the afternoon on December, 31st, rising from Angarsk pass on top of Chatyr-daga. Already many years at the initiative of the Simferopol club "Eks-conducted" and its chairman Vyacheslav Minina it becomes a holiday with games and competitions on a mountain bicycle.
on January, 19th (Christening) - three times to plunge into sea water (for the sake of the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit) on Alushtinsky quay thousand people gather. It becomes at 12 o'clock in the morning. Well and in falls of Suuchhan at Red caves accept a cold font in the afternoon. Porfirija Ivanov's followers, psychics, supporters ezotericheskih doctrines Here gather.
Day of sacred Valentine (on February, 14th) Day of the Soviet army on February, 23rd are ideal for winter sports. At this time almost with a guarantee on Angarsk pass and Ah-petri snow reaches several tens centimetres. Russian the Pancake week in a big way, with prizes is marked by pancakes, games and a traditional smooth column on Ah-petri. In the program also football on snow, driving on snowmobiles, camels, mountain skiing, snowboards, sledge and other.
And in the International Women's day on March, 8th snow in mountains can be still quite good for driving, but in clear day already all sunbathe, and separate daredevils even bathe in the sea.
in the Spring deep-water Black sea gets warm at Yalta and Alushty more slowly, than on the western or east coast of Crimea. Therefore March and April with their violent flowering are especially good in Foothills, first of all in Bakhchisarai. Cave cities with their southern breakages, are literally treated kindly by the bright sun, warmly and streams ascending streams.
the Spring vacation fills mountains with children from the different countries which after slushy winter cities equally enthusiastically perceive both the first solar heat and furious counterattacks of a cold with snowstorm and snowdrifts.
May holidays - the first 10-12 days of May all hotels, health resorts, and even a private sector are simply overflowed. At desire to join these lucky persons advancing summer, you should take care of tickets and residing in advance. The advanced Moscow firms leave at this time in collective holiday for 10 days. However, prospering siajushchie siskie - too. And just in successful firms the collective prefers mountains and active tourism.
Congestion generates also a rise in prices. But as in the winter the majority of the people misses on mountains and the sea, the abundance of counter and cross-section groups in mountains at all does not irritate. All affably greet and at all do not perceive each other as competitors. May sunburn especially in mountains is very fast and dangerous (air is unusually pure and transparent), do not forget a protective cream! Thus fans of May campaigns are waited also by obligatory thunder-storms. Be ready both to a periodic shower and to slippery razmokshim to tracks. However the sensation of the general freshness and universal cleanliness after a mountain thunder-storm of the expensive costs.
Summer days very long: in 4-6 o'clock in the morning it is already light, darkens in 8-10 evenings. At coast summer nights warm in July-August even dushnovatye (except for Alushty and valleys to the east of it where cool air rolls down from mountains at night), in mountains cool and fresh.
Declines in Crimea, especially in mountains, very short . And fans of well-known Karelian and other northern dawns (which are really wonderful), lasting hours, it would be desirable to warn experts: in Crimean mountains the sun simply sharply leaves, fails for horizon and sharply there comes darkness. It can be dangerous, if all of you on a route. As magnificent and improbably huge moon can sharply come up because of a slope, filling in mountains with bright yellow colour. However, once again – care! Lunar colour always was a symbol of perfidy, illusiveness. At all seeming brightness, lunar beams give absolutely other drawing of shades, than solar, deform distances and can smooth and hide real dangers of a relief – clefts, breakages, karstic funnels. any walks under the moon! As a matter of fact, it causes to skilled conductors always to tell at a night fire terrifying stories about the Black Doll, the Mangupsky boy and other that tourists were silently hammered into tents and did not think of any night activity behind their limits.
However we will return to the Crimean declines. They it is short, but are very effective, however as well as dawn. Both that, and it is necessary to admire another near to convenient and safe camp.
The Best time for mountain campaigns June. it is surprising and even it is insulting that it became in Crimea time of schoolboys younger and middle age, and also every possible exempts. In mountains they run only by buses and trample down same popular pjatachki. And after all days in June – the longest, air – the purest, in mountains only start to blossom wood apple-trees and the improbable seas curative jajlinskih meadow grasses. In 20 dates of June – time so-called zenithal downpours . When the sun costs in zenith, is high in the sky, its beams by noon extend all moisture from the earth, and after a dinner quickly overthrow it downwards. Especially distinctly it is visible on Foothills arable lands – the earth simply paruet, over it there is a translucent haze. Correctly having planned a route that to 12 – 13 hours to be on parking and under a roof, let even polyethylene, you receive special pleasure from such days. Evening will be again clear and dry, the earth after zenithal rains dries up instantly. It is fair and in relation to coast.
July-August – heavy time for mountain campaigns, but to the people comes much enough. Rescues that at tops always a breeze, and nights very much even the fresh.
the Autumn indulges silent sunny days (even weeks), but also is plentiful – than to the west and above - treats to rains.
September - October - the best time for active tourism and still good conditions for bathing in the sea.
the November vacation - time of family rest, school travel and excursions. From many cities of Ukraine it is possible to come, having spent night in a train, only for one day it is very convenient and inexpensive. However, is also such Moscow ekstremaly that having arrived by the plane, with the same flying speed go round all Crimean cities on a bicycle only for week-end.
the Winter frequently differs from late autumn a little, but in mountains it is simple a miracle: dry frosty air, pure fluffy snow. More in detail about winter sports – in the head about productive leisure and sports.