Cartographical maintenance of mountaineering. Cards in hands, pedals in feet
(Article is fair for planning of any campaigns)
"+ырфъю was on a paper, yes have forgotten about ютЁруш"
The Saying which has been taken out in an epigraph, was born in Crimea in days of the first defence of Sevastopol of 1854-1856, defence unsuccessful and very bloody. One of the main reasons of it was that all military operations were planned in the Joint Staff in St.-Petersburg.
Over and over again reading by e-mail or at conferences in the Internet the next plans of conquest of Crimea (on a mountain bicycle), each time it is necessary to be surprised naiveties of their room founders. However, anything bad about the people, gathering to go for a drive across Crimea on bicycles, I am not going to speak. In general, the person who has chosen for an active style of life, bad cannot be. And here bad cards – as much as necessary.
Even for work with good cards the vocational education is necessary. However again we will return to that "the client is always right" so we will disassemble only the most important concepts and the most widespread problems.
1. That is that in cartography:
We Will begin that cartography it not absolutely a science as the card is not absolutely space model, and its image. That is, founders of cards always work not only with a mathematical basis (system of co-ordinates, an estimation of heights, scale), but also retell the matter of cards figurative means (in tourism it is a relief, vegetation, roads, settlements, sights, service). Images at all are not models, they lean not against mathematics, not on geodetic measurements, and on emotional estimations.
With a mathematical basis too not all so is smooth. At me in the face of bikers from Moscow measured height above sea level by means of the device of satellite navigation GPS directly on a triangulable tower. The difference between a mark cast in pig-iron and instrument readings, has made about 90 metres. What here says lies?
- The matter is that in the USA, whose satellite system gives the information on GPS, the system of definition of a zero mark of heights, and in the USSR - the is accepted. We at school learn that the highest top of the world is Chomolungma in the Himalayas, and on the American globe – the greatest top of the world – peak the Poppy-kinli, and there is it, naturally, in Alaska, in territory of the USA. As well as all it most-most, however, can be simply cartographical horror story. But systems of measurement of the heights, really different.
Here that knowing tourists from Sank-Peterburga, not inform one year using navigating devices.
Before to travel with device GPS, it is necessary to find out, what geophysical model of globe is entered into it (through option Datum).
Soviet Union and on the post-Soviet space for globe model it is accepted
Ellipsoid Krasovsky (Pulkovo 1942)
Const aP As Double=6378245 ' Big poluos
Const alP As Double=1 / 298.3 ' Compression
In satellite navigating system the United States which the majority of the countries now uses, Ellipsoid GRS80 (WGS84)
Const aW As Double=6378137 ' Big poluos
Const alW As Double=1 / 298.257223563 ' Compression
GPS works in системеWGS84, but is able to translate co-ordinates in "¤ѕыъютю". If in it to set up "Datum".
And whether it here translates height from WGS in "¤ѕыъютю" - I do not know. Around Peter say that the difference in height indications reaches about 10 metres (here zero height in pulkovskoj to system). If GPS has no air barometre-vysotomera the declared vertical error can reach 25м, and in real probably it is more.
If GPS with aneroidom, last avtokalibruetsja according to companions in WGS84. If this data coincides with the data of the Baltic system heights on a card and on GPS coincide to 0-2м, for example Kola p and the Arkhangelsk region, but somewhere divergences can be very big.
We Will remind that our doubts in accuracy of satellite navigation have begun with a divergence between indicators of the device and a mark in triangulable point in 90 metres.
In general, in Crimea, I advise to be very much ostrozhnym with instrument navigation, in the conditions of a fog in general to stop movement.
Distortions of space, distances and corners between objects are inevitable by transfer of a volume relief on a plane, but for tourism the routeing diagrammes showing in scale height above sea level through each 1, 2, 3 km or in points of change of biases for a long time are thought already up. It is possible to name a classical example of such cards the atlas "On cave cities of Crimea".
However tourists from a former communist block should deal even with the set distortions which with a view of maintenance of a mode of privacy are entered into cards by specially trained and specially paid experts. Only on cards of times of the first co-operative societies (1989-1993) these distortions are not present.
Therefore tourists usually hunt for confidential topographic maps of the Joint Staff. Year of shooting is always specified in them, for example 1967 also. Who knows fresher shooting, inform.
2. Changes in the nature
One of very good American books on engineering geology is called "the Uneasy landscape". Really, all components of a landscape live the stormy life:
the relief at all is not something fallen asleep, in depths of a ground occur not only earthquakes, but also procorfs because of chisel works or filling of water basins, the mirror of ground waters, karstic procorfs, landslips, collapses changes and grjazekamennye streams move huge volumes of a ground – a simply enough strong downpour that the habitual route became impassable for ever;
river valleys in Crimea the most intensively mastered part of the earths, channels are straightened, terraces are levelled and opened, but every year the rivers remind the person of its negligibility – take down bridges, wash away roads, put loops (meanders) in which are then formed staritsy and bogs;
the vegetation radically changes shape of a landscape – on bezlesnyh slopes in Crimea almost terraces, old gardens raskorchevany everywhere are cut, in suburban woods there were housing estates and villages of the Crimean Tatars;
the contribution to landscape change (a landscape, kraevida) bring both animal, and weather factors, and, of course, economic activities or simply stupid durkovanie people, but the basic conclusion already and so it is clear. Already at the moment of receipt in printing house the card contains a great number of errors and distortions.
Northern coast of sea of Azov, for example, changes after each large storm on tens and hundreds metres so on sea charts even it is specified that the coastal line is reflected conditionally.
3. Problems and decisions
If to begin one after another, that, certainly, the important and delightful part veloputeshestvija begins (and proceeds infinitely long and immensely pleasantly) from a choice of the country and driving area. At this stage is better risovannye cards of the countries and provinces (areas, states, counties, bezlikov, bantustanov, well I do not know …). Such cards transfer as though trehmerno complexity and a relief steepness, characteristic lines of the horizon, typical lines of a coastal line, provide guidance on vegetation, density of settlements and high system development. Cheerful badges and pictures on cards designate sights, a gratefulness and vkusnosti. – do not forget that it only images, and the person who drew them, could mean at all that you represent. It is normal, as images are born in a brain on the basis of education, cultural traditions, personal experience.
At a stage of a choice of the country photos (on them, for example, on the Mediterranean countries Marx's phrase "goats is perfectly illustrated have eaten Greece" – the greens are very poor both in Spain, and in Turkey), well are necessary still and splendour of tropical greens should remind at once of humidity and the heat not especially compatible with pedalirovaniem. If to speak about Crimea on Southern coast, on the earths of Sevastopol, in the Bakhchsarai, Simferopol and Belogorsky area mountain-wood routes in a shade are possible. But here it is very easy to lose the way and reasonably to employ a conductor. And here vicinities of Koktebel, Tarhankut, Kazantip are good the good review and distant prospect in a route choice. But here from summer heat you are defenceless.
For the sake of justice I will remind that dry Crimean heat, nevertheless not so is dangerous as heat of the Russian Midland, and already especially damp heat of tropics. A climatic strip natural to white race, whence, as a matter of fact, the white race also was settled all over the world, dry subtropics are: Azure coast (Nice and Monaco), the north of Adriatic Sea (Northern Italy, Slovenia, Croatia), Southern coast of Crimea and the Crimean Foothills.
The Choice of style of driving – routeing or radial, bivuachnyj or comfortable, besides is necessary for a domashne-room time. It is possible to pick at random cards and reports on another's trips from the Internet. Cards are necessary already and scale, is better 1:100 000, that is in 1 sm – 1 km, thus a loop or radialka on 20 km on a straight line really pours out in 50-70 km of daily run on mountains and dales that quite it is a lot of, but nevertheless finds room before eyes on standard format А4.
Such leaf can be held already before eyes and in special transparent planshetike in velosumke on a wheel. Just with such cards (and also more largely and more small) I prepare the routes, usually to I should pass not less than three times, studying not one line of movement, and a certain strip to choose the most convenient and interesting route.
At this stage pictures from space and air photography very help. Great volume of such works is executed across Crimea in 1980th years by geological faculty of the Moscow university of Lomonosov. The base of faculty is in settlement Cool the Bakhchsarai area. Only I will remind, as the relief which has been removed from space, all the same varies. For example, after strong rains in the summer of 2002, the shortest way from Scientific to Bakhchisarai over a gas pipeline line became impassable: clay has washed off, remained only big with keen edges of a tile of a marl – neither to go, nor to go. Other example: a beach track from Alushty to cape Sotera. In the end of a season it trample down perfectly, and after winter storm to go on a friable beach in general it is impossible. Always it is necessary to know some variants "from point And in point", therefore to hammer in points in GPS – more likely game, than necessity.
Gennady Timofeev (the founder of a site www.tavria.ua), the big expert Bahchicarajskih on vicinities, has somehow told that can go so that the wind always was in a back. So it also is, because for Foothills valleys is characteristic that their flat part is opened, and roads prokatyvajut (and after raspashki every spring anew) on field and wood border or small rivers. It turns out that always there is a choice – to go round a field on the right or at the left. Sometimes prokatyvajut and sokrashchenki on diagonals. In any case of the image of such first coats on a card it is conditional. As to wood roads with them is even worse: on topokarty the mad web of glades, mineralizovannyh fire-prevention strips, trelevochnyh lines on which a tractor drag logs is put. Among this disgrace real first coats (among which is excellent ancient "ishachki" - flat pack tracks) are simply lost. To it still it is necessary to add a track from transport of foresters and poachers which are simply wound on the affairs, to haying glades or apiaries (after which it is necessary to go already only back). It is not necessary keeping the house to play about kurvimetrom and to plan norms of daily run. It will depend still and on weather (from a wind direction – very much, from a rain – so-so), and from weight of accidents.
Thus, except topographic maps, black-and-white schemes of threads of a route, and risovannye cards in a combination to photo galleries are good. On risovannyh cards are perfectly visible tjaguny and abrupt sites, crossings with highways and other important information. The unimportant information is not shown. It in cartography is called generalisation (selection and display only the essential information for definite purposes). That is why topographic maps on which everything is shown, are not suitable for a cycle tourism. For us special cards which can prepare only velokluby, incorporating and skilled velogidov, working with people, and the experts having skills of cartography, toposemki and orientations are necessary.
The Most important part of a route are specific points. For veloturista they both emotionally, and purely physically serve as the important stages of a route which should be overcome and in which then (and for it) it is possible to take pleasure. I usually "rake" the best silhouettes of mountains for a background, an advantageous foreshortening and other artful trifles for successful shooting. And then simply I expose tourists almost violently on the fulfilled points that they did the pictures quickly and faultlessly.
Even for extreme downhill racing and the start point, and a finish point should give open space for eyes and imagination. Well and for shooting certainly. In my guidebooks I necessarily do last years the review of specific platforms (in Crimea them specially equipped since the first aristocratic manors from the beginning of 19 centuries), continued in gensekovskie times, and now mould the expert mould everyones (however, to these arbours you will not make the way any more).
A route Choice next day in Crimea really to spend on the eve of driving. More or weather, your state of health, a condition of bicycles, desires of different members of group will be less clear. Naturally, some different cards in scale from 2-hkilometrovok to 2-hsotok (for such places, for example, as the Grand Canyon) for this purpose will not prevent. Between two suppers and continuously moderate consumption of wines there is a sense to talk, esteem, look, draw, dream.
This already in itself both pleasure and the big work. So if since morning you perfectly sleep, is dense and is tasty attempt and will go on foot to luxuriate on the nearest vodoemchik, your routeing creativity will serve as an excellent shade for nicely worked head. It I to that is better to plan a route of days on 10 and to alternate intensive loadings in 30-80 km on mountains with days when you will pass no more than 15-20 km, and the basic time devote to bathing, sunburn and dialogue.