– Names of geographical objects still remain area of disputes and scientific researches. Therefore be not surprised that in the literature of regional studies and on cards there can be a different writing of the same names. First, names have been written down rather recently at drawing up of topographic maps in XVIII-XIX centuries. Simple Russian soldiers, sometimes officers or engineers of a German, French and other origin wrote down them sometimes. The most widespread different interpretations of Sotera and Satera, Kopsel and Kapsel. In difficult ("two- or three-storyed" names) it is possible to meet writing variants through a hyphen or together. Norms of modern Turkish language, it would seem demand and from the Crimean authors of a conjoint writing. However, we write in Russian. How it will be convenient for the Russian tourist – Eminebairhosar or Emine-bair-hosar? Whether it will be better for acquaintance with krymskotatarskoj culture that Russian-speaking or English-speaking tourists have understood at once that in this name of Emine – a female name, bair – a hill, a height, hosar – a well. I think, better.
Besides, in Russian the sample for me is the writing the Moskva River. Here it is clearly visible that own name is written from a capital letter, and through a hyphen with small the class of geographical object (mountain, the river, a valley, a stone, a rock) is designated. Basically, we will adhere to this tradition though it is not neither a rule, nor norm. On the other hand, we will respect also traditions to write with a grammatical error the well-known mountain Demerdzhi (actually the smith is Temirchi or Demirdzhi), and also to write together Chatyrdag and Karadag, and also German names like Rosental and Kronental.
Among historical layers of the Crimean toponymics it is possible to allocate conditionally:
- drevneevropejskie doarijskie the names which have reached us in strongly deformed kind still from primitive hunters of an epoch of the Great freezing of Europe.
- Aryan names which gave already ancient agricultural and pastusheskie the tribes settled through Crimea on a measure otstupanija of a glacier further on the north and the West; in this group distinctly differ European, tavrskie (Avunda, Salgir, Kacha, Alma) both Ancient Greek (Feodosiya) and North Iranian, turanskie – skifo-sarmato-alanskie (Habei, Palaky) branches;
- Drevne-Ugrian and Turkic names, many of which are already secondary transfer (tracing-paper) or simply onomatopoeic copying of more ancient names. An example – Aju-dag (Bear-mountain) earlier was called on Ajja – Sacred is Greek. Turkic names exists now in variants at least three dialects krymskotatarskogo language. That is hoba (cave) at coast corresponds koba – in Foothills;
- Slavic, including Russian and Ukrainian, then Soviet (for example, guerrilla) and now slengovye informal processings or transfers krymskotatarskih names, and also the name of new objects which was not earlier. An example: JUrkiny rocks – earlier Erkjan or Ernen, from er – the earth and kaja - a rock. Still an example: Karasu (water from under the earth) became Karasevkoj.
With many names there was a thousand-year transformation to change of several language families. So the river name Black which the Crimean Tatars named Chergun or the Cher-sou has no Turkic explanations, goes back to more ancient tribes.
Amusing transformations occurred and in very fast rate – the surname of the Russian landowner Hvitsky has entitled the nearest rocks Fytskin, and then has turned in krymskotatarskoe Pychke (Saw) which has very much approached sawtooth breakages of rocks at present village Bashtanovka.
Modern informal names it is a lot of at "tusovochnyh" places, for example Mangupa have a Rock of Presidents, and at the Fox Bay – rocks the Water-melon and the Melon.
I do not result here detailed reasonings as it is not ready even to disputes with recognised authorities on this rather confused area. On the Internet the short dictionary "Crimea is completely published. Place names", published in 1998 publishing house "Tavrija-plus".
Its authors – I.L.Beljansky, I.N.Lezina and A.V.Superansky A.V. Have done huge work. Though she cannot be considered ended, but anything equal on scale and validity till now it was not published.
Coming back to a theme of cards … be not surprised raznoboju in names, but do not disregard frank mistakes, like the Beam instead of Bakla or White stones instead of Adalar (on many Kiev cards). Write to publishing houses. To you only will be grateful.