Floristic riches Crimea, and it about 2400 kinds, is unusual not only to the Eastern Europe (which average area has usually 500-800 kinds). To riches of the green dress of peninsula, especially its Southern coast, natives of the countries of the Mediterranean or those who often there has a rest - our greens are surprised also both is more powerful, and is more various, and fresh; richer than soil; set of extensive reserves.
Approximately 250 kinds of plants meet only in Crimea, them name endemami (endemikami, endemichnymi kinds). It, for example, the Crimean white snowdrop folded - only in the mixed woods of Mountain Crimea, the Crimean edelweiss (jaskolka Bibershtejna) - only on Jajle, zemljanichnik melkoplodnyj - only on Juzhnoberezhe, a hawthorn Pojarkovoj - only on Karadage, sudakskaja a pine, a version pitsundskoj - only at the Pike perch and in a South careful zone of Sevastopol.
Crimean endemiki – a cyclamen of Kuznetsova and a snowdrop folded (galantus) – plants bulbous, gathering of their colours cannot represent any harm . Their people absolutely poor collect and sell. That on them round-ups the spindle-legs dressed in bullet-proof vests with automatic machines – simply shame, and at all neither what nor struggle for red books everyone there arrange that. By the way, and the Crimean snowdrop was never brought in the Red book of the USSR, as a vanishing species is not and perfectly grows in front gardens. Endemik, it is a kind growing on certain district. Here the lily of the valley just endemikom is not, grows and in the Midland of Russia, but with it, really, problems, now it became a rarity.
Besides the primordial kinds Crimea is rich also introdutsentami , not less than 2000 kinds of plants are delivered here from all ends of globe and widespread. And the South American cactus a prickly pear, the Chinese ailanthus, Canadian robinija (a white acacia), Italian gljadichija and many hundreds kinds have so got accustomed that extend independently without any leaving.
Various trees, bushes, grasses, together with mushrooms, lichens form steady communities in the nature: many-tier (especially in the mixed woods), with multilateral communications of self-control, together with with a characteristic artistic image - silhouettes and paints. The birchwood or a pine pine forest, an oak grove or kovylnaja steppe - the inhabitant of the Midland will meet them as old acquaintances. And here mountain meadow steppes Jajly or impassable kustarnikovye thickets of Southeast coast is already something especial. That to speak about ancient parks Juzhnoberezhja where in relic mozhzhevelovye groves have joined for a long time the Italian pines and the Lebanese cedars. And artificial landings of the Crimean pine to mountain terraces and the fulfilled stone-cutting open-cast mines quite often cast thoughts on pyramids majja or architecture of aliens.
The Steppe zone of Crimea is completely opened and populated, only individual sites of virgin steppe burning in May with scarlet and yellow tulips remain.
Remain (quite often in a reserved mode) and beams rich with fruit bushes, and also very original priruslovye thickets along small Crimean small rivers. Powerful trees of an oak, an elm, poplars tower over thickets of a willow, a wood nut, a cornel, all it is densely twisted by lianas lomonosa, an evergreen ivy, a prickly blackberry.
These green corridors connecting flat Crimea with mountain, have huge value for ecological equilibrium.
In Foothills at heights from 350 to 600 m above sea level the basic vegetative community are so-called oaklets and artificial landings of a pine Crimean, including on terraces. Below this level the same communities meet islets, a natural belt of forest-steppe - the best in the economic relation, is occupied by vineyards, gardens and fields.
The forest-steppe zone clearly shows Incomplete humility to the person in May-June when Foothills fields turn to magnificent scarlet carpets. It different kinds of a poppy (basically, samosejka and doubtful) blossom. They blossom and in steppe, but in vicinities of Sevastopol, Bakhchisarai, Simferopol and Belogorska it is necessary to admire them, at all their harm to wheaten and barley fields.
Oaklets are in essence root young growth from the former oak groves which have been repeatedly cut down in the past. Well and the Crimean pine has appeared most "=х§эюыюушёэ№ь" a material for fast lesovosstanovlenija, fastenings of slopes and ecological improvement of the earths broken by mountain workings out.
Oaklets can alternate, especially in vicinities of Bakhchisarai, with thickets of a prickly juniper. Foothills woods are not so high, are not shady, but are very good for walks and campaigns. They also are unusually rich with crabs, pears, a cornel, a wood nut, a hawthorn and other fruit plants. And also mushrooms and medicinal grasses.
When you cross the Main ridge of Crimean mountains from Bakhchisarai to Yalta, from Simferopol to Alushte or from Belogorska to Privetnomu it is clearly visible that approximately from 600 metres above sea level woods become shady, long-boled are woods from a beech and a hornbeam with an impurity still sets of breeds, including a wild sweet cherry and an apple-tree. In reserves such woods simply amaze with the magnificence.
At heights over 1100 metres eternally storming a wind define the whole belt so-called beechen krivolesja, reminding to scenery to terrible, but to romantic fairy tales.
Hilly surfaces of the Main ridge - jajly, cover the richest meadow steppes, both in respect of a forage for hoofed animals of animals, and on a botanical variety, and especially on curative plants.
The Southern edge jajly is covered by powerful and most beautiful pines (though here again there is a small belt pine krivolesja and whole "яі э№х ЁюЁш").
From 900 to 400 m above sea level on southern breaking Jajly dubovo-pine woods with an underbrush various and rich with fruits go down.
The Bottom seaside breakages and rocky haosy cover communities of the Mediterranean type: frigana (low prickly thickets), shibljak (thickets from low listopadnyh trees, oaks, a pistachio, grabinnika) - these prevail in the east, and here beautiful evergreen bosks from zemljanichnika melkoplodnogo and a treelike juniper are close on type to Mediterranean makvisu. Under them the continuous cover forms iglitsa pontijskaja with evergreen prickly leaflets and bright red berries.
Makvisy have practically merged now in a single whole with ancient South careful parks.
Thus, the basic lesoobrazujushchimi breeds of Crimea are: pines (except chernostvolnoj Crimean, in mountains there is also a pine ordinary a reddish trunk, and at coast - endemichnaja sudakskaja, and also set of pines-introdutsentov from Italy, Canada, Mexico); oaks (three kinds local, and on juzhnoberezhe a little evergreen, including pith); a beech and a hornbeam.
Certainly, to Crimea go for the sake of the sea, but comparing it and to resorts of a steppe zone of Ukraine, and with the coast of Mediterranean sea exhausted from heat, once again we will tell thanks our plants.
That a pine - the tree curative, allocating fitontsidy, flying substances pernicious for pathogenic bacteria, is known almost to all. But also in oaklets or shibljakah air is not less pure, after all both an oak chereshchatyj and its undersized colleagues - an oak fluffy which leaves from the bottom party are covered by a down, and an oak rocky, all the winter long not dumping yellow foliage, - all of them are rich fitontsidami. Together with junipers, a poplar, a walnut and many other things, usual plants for Crimea.
To Stir fallen down foliage, walking on autumn wood or park, it is pleasant not without reason - this aroma of withering is extremely rich with curative substances.
But the green dress of peninsula it not only fitontsidy. These are mushrooms and berries, medicinal grasses and nuts, amusing snags and outgrowths.
Well and the main thing is it "эхтхёюь№х яюыхчэюё=ш": it softens a climate, accumulates a moisture when it is a lot of it, and then gradually gives, protects hillsides from washout, - in general, supports natural balance.
Our love to picnics, shish kebabs and other pleasures on the nature not always passes for wood completely. We also suffer from it. Forest fires become the present disaster for all live. But it is not better at all in ecological sense having washed away slopes, formation of gullies and ravines on a place of an automobile track, trampling green podrosta, zahlamlenie plastic and a tin.
Therefore in Crimea are protected not only reserves, but also woods as a whole. During the fire-dangerous period (from May till October) their visiting is forbidden. But to put under each tree of the forester, of course, it is not possible.
The effectual measures of their preservation is the accomplishment of special vacation spots in residential suburbs. Their equipment for rest is conducted by special methods of landscape architecture, basically from a local tree and a stone. It is so-called wood furniture from stubs and snags, shelters from a bad weather, the arbours, the improved springs and sources. Well and it is final kostrishcha, braziers, musorosborniki. Such places in Crimea more than 40.