Geological secrets of Mountain Crimea. Earthquakes, landslips, collapses, have sat down
Convenience of studying of geological objects, simplicity of extraction of fossils of ancient animals and gathering of collections involve here experts from every corner of the globe. Well and jewellers work with the Crimean semi-precious stones from quartz group: a cornelian, a jasper, agate, chalcedony, rock crystal. They are not difficult for finding and among a usual beach pebble. And among dealers souvenirs it is possible to meet the expert who will tell about properties of these stones, and can and will acquaint with jewellers or collectors.
Geological processes are similar circus illjuzionu: dramatically, visually, but it is up to the end inexplicable. The sacred sources contradicting laws of a hydrology and gravitation; underground labyrinths in tens kilometres; the volcanic muzzles overturned on one side; rocky files without the bases, arisen goodness knows where from; sea bowls at kilometre height; eternal ices and glacial boulders; the tongues of sand changing the borders as will like … All these stone haosy, idols, canyons, caves, falls are not simply beautiful, and are divinely beautiful and store in itself sacrificial blood, is frequent also the human.
Crimea long since is base for educational an expert of students-geologists of Ukraine, Russia and other countries. The basic area an expert – a small river Bodrak valley in the Bakhchsarai area (villages Trudoljubovka and Cool below the Observatory), and also vicinities of Simferopol and Alushty, well and it is final, reserve Karadag.
Vicinities almost all coastal resorts are rich with exposures of magmatic and sedimentary breeds, freakish folds and aeration forms, landslide haosami, caves, the falls, the enormous boulders which origin causes till now disputes among scientists.
Research of geological riddles of vicinities of Simferopol and Alushty has in many respects defined career of academician Alexander Fersmana, professor Vladimir Lebedinsky and other known scientists.
Till now disputes of scientists cause an origin of the Salgirsky and Alushtinsky valley, the Grand Canyon of Crimea, mnogoetazhnost the Crimean caves, "a wrong" order zaleganija more ancient breeds over younger in several hills in the Bodraksky valley, in the Simferopol water basin and vicinities of Belogorska.
In general, it is possible to tell that most beautiful of the Crimean mountains are also the most mysterious – the Teeth Ah-petri and stone cones on slopes of mountain the Falcon, stone idols of the Valley of Ghosts and Karadaga, South careful haosy from magmatic breeds and islets-ottorzhentsy in the sea, fallen off as a result of grandiose accidents from an edge of Jajly.
All centuries causes disputes of experts. But also for the usual tourists travelling by buses, jeeps, mountain bicycles, top or it is simple on foot geological excursions are very interesting and leave unforgettable impressions.
One of simple and pleasant walks - from Alushty on the West to cape Plaka. It is very convenient to move on quay of the Professorial corner, on road over boarding houses "Crystals" and "Cascade" and further on a track along beaches and quays Azure, Karabaha, Rock, Karasana and Partenita.
Trips on a plateau of Chatyrdaga with visiting of the most beautiful karstic caves Marble and Emine-bair-hosar Are popular also.
Crimea is one of the parts of the world most studied by geologists. However definitive clearness in its geological history is not present. Therefore there is a sense attentively to listen to everything that to you about it will tell at excursions, and to read special geological guidebooks. But thus easy to perceive nestykovki and contradictions in an explanation of geological history and modern processes. And to reflect on it most. Perhaps the true will open to you …
Crimean mountains are one of links of a huge belt of mountain ridges which is called as Alpine. But even at first sight to the person familiar with caucasus or Carpathians, mountains of our peninsula will seem not only low, but also a little atypical under the form. The matter is that in the theory of new global tectonics jajly and foothills of Crimea at all are not considered as mountains. It is edge of a platform only raised on kilometre height. As well as all platforms (for example, East European) it has «a two-storeyed structure» - the folded base from fancifully crumpled Taurian slates and a flat cover of limestones.
What forces have raised a platform and have made its southern edge similar to mountains? – Well the same as everywhere. About drift of continents, is more exact about movement of continental and oceanic plates even at school pass. Basically, these movements in a horizontal plane are finished before the Glacial age, and in vertical - after it. But echoes and dump of pressure at movement of plates occur and during our times in the form of earthquakes.
In Crimea with IV century BC till now has occurred 77 strong earthquakes. The most destructive, probably, was earthquake of 1341 which besides Crimea has captured the huge area, was accompanied by flooding of a part of a land by waters of Black sea and "has harmed undescribed".
Earthquake of the end of XV century has brought down mountain and a fortress at the Yalta cape and has caused such fright in inhabitants that they ran, emptiness of Yalta proceeded almost 70 years.
In 1927 on June, 26th and in the night from 11 for September, 12th there were two earthquakes which have caused destructions on Southern coast from Sevastopol to Feodosiya, felt not only on the Crimean peninsula, but also is far behind its limits.
After 1927 of destructive earthquakes in Crimea was not, but devices on seismic stations catch every year tens weak pushes.
the Majority of epicentres the Crimean earthquakes is in Black sea on a site between Yalta and Gurzuf. The centres of earthquakes are mainly on depth from 10 to 40 km. If sproetsirovat the centres of earthquakes on a terrestrial surface it will appear that they are concentrated in an abrupt part of a slope of the Black Sea hollow to depths between 200 and 2000 m. the Majority of epicentres is concluded between a continental shallow and a flat bottom of a deep-water hollow of Black sea.
Obviously, there is any communication between zemljatrjasenijami and a hollow of Black sea. The raising of Crimean mountains is connected with pododviganiem under their basis of a bottom of Black sea. Processing of breeds of the advanced part of a plate of Black sea in shovnoj to a zone has formed the whole chain intruzivnyh bodies. These are mountains Piljaki, Aju-dag, Sharha, Kastel and others. The most powerful accident has blown up a volcano of Karadag.
The Second line powerful shirotnogo a break has passed on a line Bakhchisarai – Simferopol where also there was a set intruzy. Now there it is possible to admire magmatic breeds in numerous open-cast mines.
On Kerch peninsula powerful tectonic movement have led to that in breaks organic materials have failed, there can be rests of woods or bogs, or lake silt. Their fermentation proceeds not to huge depth, and the liquid dirt is thrown out through very original mud volcanoes.
Flat Crimea and coast adjoining it – a zone, quiet concerning earthquakes. But she tests slow progibanie rear character. Formation of oil and gas deposits is connected with it.
At Southern coast a continental shallow already, than in other places, and the continental slope is enough abrupt. In Evpatoria, for example, beaches very small, and at Alushty and Yalta at once it is deep.
The Border of a continental shallow and an abrupt slope of a sea hollow represents a place of contact of sites of the earth crust testing opposite directed modern vertical movements. They go non-uniformly, are accompanied by pushes, that is earthquakes.
In territory of the Crimean peninsula earthquakes and with the centres removed from it on many hundreds, and even thousand kilometres are shown. For example, destructive earthquakes of last decades and years in Romania, Turkey, Iraq dokatyvajutsja to Crimea also make itself felt pushes force in 2-4 points. It leads kachaniju chandeliers and to ware trembling.
Much more considerably landslips, collapses, taluses which internal forces of the earth, how many forces of gravitation (attraction), unloading of slopes and aeration occur under influence not so much. The term "aeration" - unsuccessful enough transfer of a German word "fervitterung" from a root "wind" weather. Complex action of all factors of weather, first of all water freezing in mountain cracks in the winter, and not just a wind Means. By the way, not quite and clearly, as instead of a word "definition" (definition) in Russian the concept "term" which in all European languages, including in an Ukrainian language means – exact term has become stronger.
The Most powerful factor of destruction of coast – sea activity, both blows of waves, and chemical razedanie breeds sea water. And it is final, expansion of cracks in breeds at water freezing.
Modern geological processes conduct and to "eating" of beaches, mountain collapses and landslips, strengthen selevye (grjazekamennye streams).
All these processes continuously change outlines of rocks, a coastal line, change width of beaches, structure of beach adjournment. Frequently constructions of health resorts in a coastal or mountain zone become unsuitable for residing. However such objects are most interesting to excursions, as with their each visiting they change. Even city beaches after each storm appears in a new kind. Well and if you collect photos of stone laces, for example, in breakages of cave cities, you will find out that their drawing varies literally for couple of months.
I Hope, it will learn you to care at a vacation spot choice in mountains, and you will feel vulnerability of the nature more sharply.